Why have relations between India and China, which comprise nearly forty per cent of the world’s population, been troubled for over sixty years? A war in 1962 was followed by decades of uneasy peace, but in recent years A rising number of serious military confrontations has underlined their huge and growing differences. This book examines these differences in four crucial areas: their perceptions and prejudices about each other; their continuing disagreements over the border; their changing partnerships with America and Russia; and the growing power asymmetry between them, which affects all aspects of their relationship. China demands deference as a great power and the dominant country in Asia, while India wants recognition and respect as an equal. With such a deep divide separating the two neighbours, what does the future hold? In this lucid, informative, and insightful book, a leading expert on the subject decodes the complex history of India–China relations and argues that the path ahead is a difficult one that could see more military confrontations, including violent border clashes. Crucial to the relationship will be India’s ability to reduce the enormous gap with China in economic, military, and even soft power.